Note that these most often aren't books that actually came out in 2010, since I'm a bit of a cheapskate and mostly read trade or plain paperbacks instead of hardcovers.
Unlike in other years, no one book stood head and shoulders above the pack for me this year, but below are some of my faves, in no particular order:
Graceling, by Kristin Cashore
The Art of Racing in the Rain, by Garth Stein
Warbreaker, by Brandon Sanderson
Passage, by Connie Willis
Also leading the pack: Anathem, by Neal Stephenson, The Sum of Our Days, by Isabel Allende, and The Other Lands, by David Anthony Durham